The electronic structures, spin-states, and geometrical parameters of tetra-, penta-, and hexa-coordinated iron-porphyrins are investigated applying density functional theory (DFT) based calculations, utilizing the plane-wave pseudopotential as well as localized basis set approaches. The splitting of the spin multiplet energies are investigated applying various functionals including recently developed hybrid meta-GGA (M06 family) functionals. Almost all of the hybrid functionals accurately reproduce the experimental ground state spins of the investigated Fe-porphyrins. However, the energetic ordering of the spin-states and the energies between them are still an issue. The widely used B3LYP provides consistent results for all chosen systems. The GGA+U functionals are found to be equally competent. After assessing the performance of various functionals in spin-state calculations, the potential energy surfaces of the oxygen binding process by heme is investigated. This reveals a “double spin-crossover” feature for the lowest energy reaction path that is consistent with previous CASPT2 calculations but predicting a lowest energy singlet state. The calculations have hence captured the spin-crossover as well as spin-flip processes. These are driven by the intra-atomic orbital polarization on the central metal atom due to the atomic and orbitals rearrangements. The nature of the chemical bonding and a molecular orbital analysis are also performed for the geometrically simple but electronic structurally complicated system tetra-coordinated planar Fe porphyrin in comparison to the penta-coordinated systems. This analysis explains the observed paradoxical appearance of certain peaks in the local density of states (DOS).
We are working at the Institute of Nano Science and Technology Mohali, one of the leading research institutes in India in the field of Nano Science. INST is located in Chandigarh, one of the major cities of India.